Hazards and Contamination

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Hazards and Contamination

1 / 465

Store dirty clothing like aprons, chef coats, or uniforms away from food and prep areas. What kind of container should they be stored in until they are washed?

2 / 465

Why do food handlers wearing false fingernails need to also wear gloves?

3 / 465

How can colored cutting boards and utensil handles help prevent cross-contamination?

4 / 465

Which bacteria can be prevented from causing a foodborne illness by controlling time and temperature?

5 / 465

Sometimes, big fish become contaminated with Ciguatera Toxin after eating smaller fish that have been eating toxic algae. Which fish can become infected this way?

6 / 465

What can be transferred to food if equipment and utensils are NOT cleaned and sanitized between uses?

7 / 465

The letter R in the ALERT acronym stands for Report. What kind of reports should you maintain for your food defense program?

8 / 465

Which surfaces should food handlers avoid touching to prevent contaminating their hands with pathogens?

9 / 465

Parasites are often linked with these foods:

• Seafood
• Wild game
• Contaminated Produce

How can produce (fruits, vegetables) get contaminated with parasites?

10 / 465

What’s the difference between cleaning and sanitizing?

11 / 465

Unauthorized people inside your operation are a risk to food safety. When is this especially true?

12 / 465

Which are true about bacteria?

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Which statement is true about how the growth of bacteria is affected temperature?

14 / 465

Why is it critical to train staff on the procedures to clean up vomit and diarrhea if someone gets sick in the operation?

15 / 465

Which is required if any worker has an illness due to any of the big six pathogens?

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Why must staff remove jewelry from their hands and arms before prepping food or when working in food prep areas?

17 / 465

What is it called when there is something harmful in food?

18 / 465

What can happen if food is time-temperature abused?

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Which of these situations can cause a food handler to contaminate food and cause illness?

20 / 465

Which are true about how an infrared (laser) thermometer measures temperature?

21 / 465

How can you prevent parasites from causing foodborne illnesses?

22 / 465

What should be done with moldy food unless the mold is a natural part of the food?

23 / 465

What kind of thermometer is less likely to cause cross-contamination or damage to food because it does NOT need to touch the food or surface to check its temperature?

24 / 465

Which large fish can become contaminated with biological toxins after they eat smaller fish that have consumed the toxin?

25 / 465

What is contact time?

26 / 465

How can a food handler who appears to be healthy spread foodborne pathogens?

27 / 465

What kind of food should have its own cutting boards, utensils, and containers to prevent cross-contamination?

28 / 465

How should chemicals be thrown out?

29 / 465

After working with raw meat, why is it dangerous to just rinse off the equipment instead of washing, rinsing, and sanitizing it?

30 / 465

What color does ServSafe designate for cutting boards and utensils that will be used for raw chicken?

31 / 465

What can be transferred to someone’s hands while eating, drinking, smoking, or chewing gum and tobacco?

32 / 465

Which of these are symptoms of Typhoid Fever, the illness caused by the Big Six Pathogen Salmonella Typhi?

33 / 465

Liquid waste, like dirty mop water, should NOT be dumped into toilets or urinals. Where should liquid waste be dumped?

34 / 465

What happens if food spends too much time in the Temperature Danger Zone (TDZ)?

35 / 465

What are some common neurological symptoms associated with consuming Biological Toxins?

36 / 465

What color does ServSafe designate for cutting boards and utensils that will be used for produce?

37 / 465

What should be avoided when checking the temperature of packaged food items?

38 / 465

When is it acceptable to re-serve bottles of ketchup, mustard, or other condiments to another table?

39 / 465

What should be done with food and food-contact surfaces that may have been contaminated by unwashed hands?

40 / 465

What are some ways that food could become contaminated?

41 / 465

Why should chemicals be stored in their original containers?

42 / 465

Staff must report to you if they’re sickened by a Big Six Pathogen. And you must report it to your regulatory authority.

• Norovirus
• Hepatitis A
• Shigella spp.
• Salmonella Typhi
• Nontyphoidal Salmonella
• Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC)

Which Big Six Pathogens also require that your staff report to you if someone they live with has been sickened?

43 / 465

Which statements are true about yeast?

44 / 465

When using the same prep table to prepare raw food and ready-to-eat (RTE) food, which should be prepped first to reduce the risk of cross-contamination?

45 / 465

What kind of food does NOT need to be protected from contamination in a self-service area as other foods do?

46 / 465

When should thermometers be washed, rinsed, sanitized, and air-dried to prevent cross-contamination?

47 / 465

Which is an example of how a “carrier” can appear healthy but spread illness to others without knowing?

48 / 465

Every surface in your operation needs to be kept clean, but which surfaces must also be sanitized?

49 / 465

Why do guests need a clean plate and utensils each time they refill in a self-service area?

50 / 465

Chemicals should be kept in their original container with the manufacturer’s label. What should be clear enough to read the label?

51 / 465

Nonfood-contact surfaces should be cleaned regularly, but food-contact surfaces must be cleaned and sanitized after every use. What’s the difference between cleaning and sanitizing that makes this important?

52 / 465

The FDA encourages managers to develop a food defense program. What is a food defense program?

53 / 465

What should you do if a food handler is vomiting, has diarrhea, or has been diagnosed with an illness caused by a Big Six Pathogen?

54 / 465

What is the most important thing to consider when storing cleaning tools?

55 / 465

Which of these dangerous foodborne bacteria are NOT Big Six Pathogens?

56 / 465

What must you do if a food handler is diagnosed with an illness caused by one of these pathogens?

• Norovirus
• Hepatitis A
• Shigella spp.
• Salmonella Typhi
• Nontyphoidal Salmonella
• Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC)

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Which foods have a level of acidity that is ideal for the growth of bacteria?

58 / 465

Which of these are symptoms of rotavirus gastroenteritis?

59 / 465

What are some foods commonly linked with Hepatitis A?

60 / 465

What could happen if cleaners are NOT used correctly?

61 / 465

Can healthy people spread pathogens?

62 / 465

How do single-use gloves prevent food contamination?

63 / 465

What should the three points of focus be when developing a food defense program?

64 / 465

Here are some ways that a food handler can make people sick:

• NOT washing hands after using the bathroom
• Coughing or sneezing near food
• Touching a cut or burn and then touching food
• Working while sick

What risk factor is demonstrated by these examples?

65 / 465

How can an operation prevent parasites from causing foodborne illness when serving raw or undercooked fish?

66 / 465

Which corrective action should be taken if a food handler did NOT follow proper handwashing procedures?

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Which of these foods do pathogens grow well in?

68 / 465

Why should these actions be avoided?

• Scratching the scalp
• Running fingers through the hair
• Wiping or touching the nose
• Rubbing an ear
• Touching a pimple or an infected wound/boil
• Wearing and touching a dirty uniform
• Coughing or sneezing into the hand
• Spitting in the operation

69 / 465

These food-handling mistakes can cause foodborne illness by allowing pathogens to grow in food to unsafe levels:

• NOT cooling hot food properly before storage
• Holding or storing food at the wrong temperature
• NOT cooking or reheating food to a high enough internal temperature

What risk factor is demonstrated by these examples?

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What is a sign that a food or beverage is spoiled by yeast?

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What are some common symptoms of the illness caused by the Shigella spp bacteria?

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Where do contaminants come from?

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Food handlers can cause foodborne illnesses if they do any of the following:

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Infrared (Laser) Thermometers can measure the temperature of a surface without touching it. What advantage does this give the thermometer?

75 / 465

Which statement is true about the illness caused by Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli bacteria?

76 / 465

When serving multiple food items, what should each food item have of its own?

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Clostridium perfringens bacteria are one of the most common causes of foodborne illness. Which are true about the bacteria?

78 / 465

Which of these are situations when food handlers should wash their hands?

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Which statements are true about the bacteria clostridium botulinum?

80 / 465

Foodservice chemicals can be hazardous if they are NOT used or stored correctly. What is the risk with chemicals?

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What is usually the cause of unsafe food and foodborne illnesses?

82 / 465

What do Norovirus and Hepatitis A have in common?

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How can Salmonella Typhi be prevented?

84 / 465

Why is purchasing plants, mushrooms, and seafood from approved, reputable suppliers critical to preventing illness from biological toxins?

85 / 465

What can happen during a power failure or a refrigeration problem?

86 / 465

Why should chemicals never be stored above food or food-contact surfaces?

87 / 465

What are some characteristics of bacteria?

88 / 465

To avoid contamination, what should NOT be stored in these areas?

• Bathrooms
• Locker rooms
• Garbage rooms
• Dressing rooms
• Under stairwells
• Mechanical rooms
• Under leaking water lines
• Under unprotected sewer lines

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Color-coded cutting boards and utensils can help prevent cross-contamination by keeping food separate. What colors does ServSafe suggest using?

90 / 465

How should chemicals be separated from food and food-contact surfaces in storage?

91 / 465

How can contamination be prevented in storage areas?

92 / 465

Which is an example of a food that has been time-temperature abused?

93 / 465

What are the requirement for the chemicals you use and store in your operation

94 / 465

What are some common actions that can contaminate food and cause illness?

95 / 465

Which is true about ready-to-eat (RTE) food?

96 / 465

What’s the difference between cleaning and sanitizing surfaces?

97 / 465

What neurological symptom may be experienced by someone with a foodborne illness caused by seafood toxins?

98 / 465

What range of temperatures is known as the Temperature Danger Zone (TDZ), where pathogens can grow rapidly?

99 / 465

Why is controlling time and temperature and avoiding cross-contamination critical when handling food?

100 / 465

How can you prevent pathogens from growing and spreading in your operation?

101 / 465

What could happen if a physical object falls into food?

102 / 465

Staff must tell you if they live with someone who has been diagnosed with the following illnesses except?

103 / 465

Which of the Big Six Pathogens are bacteria?

104 / 465

How does physical contamination happen?

105 / 465

What part of a dish should be held to avoid touching its food contact areas?

106 / 465

What kinds of foods are parasites commonly associated with?

107 / 465

Which of these are ways to prevent the Big Six Pathogen Hepatitis A from making people sick?

108 / 465

Where can the parasite cryptosporidium parvum be found?

109 / 465

Which of these conditions are present in Potentially Hazardous Food (PHF) that make it ideal for the growth of bacteria?

110 / 465

How can mold be prevented from spoiling food or causing illness?

111 / 465

How does storing items at least six inches above the floor and away from the walls help prevent contamination?

112 / 465

What are some foods commonly linked with Shigella spp?

113 / 465

Which of these statements are true about mold?

114 / 465

Which foods have been linked to Shiga Toxin Producing E. coli?

115 / 465

What can happen when natural objects, like bones in a fish fillet, are left in food?

116 / 465

What color does ServSafe designate for cutting boards and utensils that will be used for raw meat?

117 / 465

How can food handlers keep produce separate from raw meat, poultry, and seafood to avoid cross-contamination?

118 / 465

What is vibrio vulnificus and vibrio parahaemolyticus?

119 / 465

Which of these measures can prevent the Shigella spp bacteria from causing illness?

120 / 465

If raw meat, fish, and poultry will be prepped on the same table as ready-to-eat food, how should it be done?

121 / 465

Pathogens can grow in the Temperature Danger Zone (TDZ). What range of temperatures do most pathogens grow the fastest?

122 / 465

Which of these measures can prevent injury from physical contamination?

123 / 465

Which are true about the bacteria clostridium perfringens?

124 / 465

What example does ServSafe give for meeting the FDA recommendation for “time and temperature parameters for controlling pathogens”?

125 / 465

Which of these measures can prevent the growth of bacteria?

126 / 465

How should flatware be held to avoid touching the food contact areas?

127 / 465

We usually control temperatures to limit the growth of pathogens when holding or storing TCS food. But how can time be controlled to limit their growth?

128 / 465

What chemicals should NOT be used or stored in a food service operation?

129 / 465

Which guideline can prevent cross-contamination during storage?

130 / 465

Which is an example of time-temperature abuse?

131 / 465

In what situation could an attack of deliberate contamination of food occur?

132 / 465

Which of these are symptoms are possible with illness caused by the Shiga Toxin Producing E. coli bacteria?

133 / 465

Exclude the food handler from the operation if they have an illness and symptoms caused by one of these pathogens?

134 / 465

Which of these mistakes can result in food becoming contaminated?

135 / 465

Which are examples of a natural contaminant?

136 / 465

The letter T in the ALERT acronym stands for Threat. In a food defense program, how should the manager be prepared for a threat or suspicious activity?

137 / 465

Which are growth phases for bacteria?

138 / 465

Why is a smooth, plain band the only ring that can be worn when working with or near food?

139 / 465

What are some common symptoms of Typhoid Fever, the illness caused by the Salmonella Typhi bacteria?

140 / 465

Staff drinking from beverage containers must be careful to avoid contaminating:

• Their hands
• The beverage container
• Food, utensils, and equipment

What does the lid for the beverage container need to include?

141 / 465

Cleaners, sanitizers, polishes, machine lubricants, and pesticides are examples of what kind of contaminant?

142 / 465

Which is a classification of contaminants?

143 / 465

You must report to your regulatory authority when a food handler is diagnosed with what kind of illness?

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What can produce be washed or treated with to control pathogens?

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Which is an example of fungi?

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Which is true about an attack of deliberate contamination of food?

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What should you do if a food handler has been diagnosed with an illness caused by one of these pathogens?

• Hepatitis A
• Salmonella Typhi

148 / 465

What areas of the operation should have restricted access for unauthorized people?

149 / 465

Why are food handlers NOT allowed to wear jewelry when prepping food or in food prep areas?

150 / 465

What is food at risk for during preparation?

151 / 465

How can cross-contamination be avoided in self-service areas?

152 / 465

What four main practices cause food to become unsafe?

153 / 465

Which foods can bacteria can grow in?

154 / 465

What must clean and sanitized equipment, tableware, and utensils be protected from during storage?

155 / 465

Where should staff store personal belongings, like their street clothes, coats, backpacks, keys, and phones?

156 / 465

Where does shigella spp come from?

157 / 465

What can contaminate food when used or stored incorrectly?

158 / 465

What happens when produce touches a surface that raw meat, seafood, or poultry has touched?

159 / 465

The onset-time is how long it takes for the symptoms of an illness to begin. Many people start experiencing these symptoms within minutes of consuming seafood toxins:

• Vomiting
• Diarrhea
• Flushing of the face
• Difficulty breathing
• Burning in the mouth
• Heart palpitations
• Hives
• Neurological symptoms

What neurological symptoms may occur after eating fish contaminated with seafood toxins?

160 / 465

The onset time for symptoms of Hepatitis A is slow and symptoms may take weeks to appear. Which of these are symptoms of the illness caused by the Hepatitis A virus?

161 / 465

Safe food is at risk of contamination if products recalled by the manufacturer are stored near it. How should recalled food items be kept until the instructions for their handling can be followed?

162 / 465

Bacteria need moisture to grow. The amount of moisture available in food for bacteria growth is called water activity (aw). Which of these examples of water activity (aw) levels are true?

163 / 465

Which fish may contain bacteria that produce histamine toxins if the fish is time-temperature abused?

164 / 465

Why do older adults have a higher risk for foodborne illness?

165 / 465

Where do Biological Toxins come from?

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Biological contamination is more common than chemical or physical contamination. What are some examples of biological contaminants?

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Which virus is included in the FDA’s list of Big Six Pathogens?

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What illnesses must an employee report they have been diagnosed with?

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These are some ways that pathogens can spread from contaminated surfaces to food and cause foodborne illness:

• Equipment and utensils NOT washed, rinsed, and sanitized
• Food-contact surfaces wiped clean rather than being washed, rinsed, and sanitized
• Wiping cloths are NOT stored in a sanitizer solution between uses
• Sanitizing solutions are NOT at the required levels to sanitize objects

What risk factor is demonstrated by these examples?

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As the manager, what should you be concerned about to keep food safe as it flows through your operation?

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When performing off-site service (catering), what risk is higher when there is a delay between the time food is prepared and the time it’s served?

172 / 465

The letter A in ALERT stands for assure. What things should a manager ensure regarding the deliberate contamination of food?

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Dishwashers should be installed to prevent them from contaminating food-contact surfaces. What else should be considered when installing a dishwasher?

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Why should food covers be used in self-service areas?

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What is Histamine Toxin?

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Where does Salmonella Typhi come from?

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How do we use temperature control to prevent the growth of pathogens?

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What can keep food safe by creating a barrier between hands and food?

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What foods have been linked to Listeria monocytogenes (illness listeriosis)?

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What are some ways that a food handler with poor personal hygiene can cause a foodborne illness?

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Which of these are symptoms of salmonellosis, the illness caused by the Big Six Pathogen Nontyphoidal Salmonella?

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What point in the Flow of Food has a risk for cross-contamination?

183 / 465

When do food handlers need to wash their hands if they work with raw meat, poultry, or seafood?

184 / 465

Some materials can interact with acidic foods (tomatoes, citrus) and create toxic chemicals that can make people sick. What materials should be avoided when choosing kitchenware and equipment for your operation?

185 / 465

What food safety risk is increased during off-site service?

186 / 465

What does dirty clothing carry that can cause foodborne illness?

187 / 465

According to ServSafe, food follows a path through your operation called “The Flow of Food.” There are several points along this path: the first is purchasing, and the last is service. What risk factor must be controlled at every point?

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What should be done with all work surfaces, equipment, and utensils before and after each task?

189 / 465

Deliberate contamination of food is usually focused on targets like these:

• A specific business
• A certain industry
• A processing method
• A specific kind of food

What else is true about deliberate contamination of food?

190 / 465

After cleaning tools are used, they should be cleaned and air-dried. What needs to be avoided when air-drying mops?

191 / 465

How can you prevent contamination of food and food-contact surfaces when using chemicals?

192 / 465

TCS food needs careful handling to prevent time-temperature abuse. What kind of food needs careful handling to avoid contamination?

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What should you do if staff are using or storing chemicals or cleaning tools incorrectly?

194 / 465

Food handlers must also tell managers when they have been diagnosed with an illness from one or these pathogens?

195 / 465

Where can clostridium perfringens be found?

196 / 465

Which is true about Infrared (laser) Thermometers?

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According to the FDA’s food defense program guidelines, which of these are risky practices for deliberate contamination of food?

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Never store chemicals in empty food containers or food in empty chemical containers. What kind of container should be used to store food?

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Which of these are ways that a food handler with poor personal hygiene can cause a foodborne illness?

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How can fungi cause foodborne illness?

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Metal shavings from cans, wood, fingernails, staples, bandages, glass, jewelry, and dirt are examples ServSafe gives for what kind of objects?

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How can you make sure that condiments are kept safe from contamination?

203 / 465

These are examples of common objects that can cause physical contamination if they get into food:

• Broken light bulbs
• Jewelry
• Fake fingernails
• Hair accessories
• False eyelashes
• Broken glass thermometers

What is an example of a natural object that can be a physical contaminant when left in food?

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Which of these are neurological symptoms associated with consuming Biological Toxins?

205 / 465

What must a food handler do if diagnosed with an illness caused by one of these pathogens?

• Norovirus
• Hepatitis A
• Shigella spp.
• Salmonella Typhi
• Nontyphoidal Salmonella
• Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC)

206 / 465

What will happen if produce touches a surface after raw meat, seafood, or poultry?

207 / 465

When you cut up raw chicken, how can you prevent pathogens like nontyphoidal Salmonella from contaminating other food through cross-contamination?

208 / 465

How can food handlers prevent cross-contamination and time-temperature abuse when preparing food?

209 / 465

What happens if NOT enough sanitizer is used and the concentration of a sanitizer solution is too low?

210 / 465

What information is included on a chemicals Safety Data Sheet (SDS)?

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Which food items can be displayed in a self-service area without packaging, sneeze guards, or a display case to protect them from contamination?

212 / 465

How can food handlers be prevented from contaminating food by wearing dirty clothes that carry pathogens?

213 / 465

What could happen when a food handler in your operation has any of these issues?

• They’re sneezing or coughing
• They have a foodborne illness
• They have an infected cut or burn
• They have been in contact with a sick person
• They don’t wash their hands after using the bathroom
• They have symptoms like diarrhea, vomiting, or jaundice

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What kind of contamination can cause mild to fatal injuries?

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When a food handler has been restricted or excluded due to illness caused by a Big Six Pathogen, who will determine when they can safely return to the operation or work with food?

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How can illness from Biological Toxins be prevented?

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What are some examples of accidental contamination?

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Cross-contamination can occur when water from a handwashing sink splashes onto food or food-contact surfaces. How can this be prevented?

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What program does your operation need to keep food handlers from contaminating food?

220 / 465

If you need to use poisonous or toxic pest-control materials in your operation, who should apply them?

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Which is a possible threat to your operations drinkable water supply?

222 / 465

Where does bacteria come from?